fsck is used to check and optionally repair one or more Linux file systems. File system can be a device name (e.g. /dev/sda2), a mount point (e.g. /, /usr,… ), or an ext2 label or UUID specifier. By default, the fsck will try to handle filesystems on different physical disk drives in parallel to reduce the total amount of time needed to check all of the filesystems.
amavisd-new is a high-performance and reliable interface between mailer (MTA) and one or more content checkers: virus scanners, and/or Mail::SpamAssassin Perl module. It is written in Perl, ensuring high reliability, portability and maintainability. It talks to MTA via (E)SMTP or LMTP protocols, or by using helper programs. No timing gaps exist in the design, which could cause a mail loss.
In other words, amavisd-new will help you to fight against spam. In this post, I won’t write about installation (coming soon in you theaters)
This post is just a small trick which will help you to release specific message from quarantine (false positive or you simple want to read spam messages)
Fist you need to find message inside the messages log file (usually /var/log/messages)
May 10 10:06:56 ns1 amavis: (12774-13) Blocked SPAM, [188.8.131.52] [184.108.40.206] <firstname.lastname@example.org> -> <email@example.com>, quarantine: spam-1lvc624m6MVB.gz, Message-ID: <BY2MSFTVSMTP03Dfn8e0003d305@by2msftvsmtp03.phx.gbl>, mail_id: 1lvc624m6MVB, Hits: 7.743, size: 3013, 4325 ms
As you can see above, it is spam-1lvc624m6MVB.gz
Now you can release specific message with
[root@s1 ~]# amavisd-release spam-1lvc624m6MVB.gz
And you will see something like
250 2.0.0 Ok, id=rel-1lvc624m6MVB, from MTA([127.0.0.1]:10025): 250 2.0.0 Ok: queued as 403206AF07CE
Now you just need to check your inbox and you should see the message.
Centos has a neat application for switching between alternative software packages, called alternatives.
Few days ago I noticed that one server doesn’t send logwatch email. I wanted to see what was the reason and here are the few tips you can check before you dig inside logwatch settings.
First, check /etc/aliases and root email inside
# nano /etc/aliases
at the end, check next lines:
# Person who should get root's mail root: firstname.lastname@example.org
After you save aliases, enter command
This command rebuilds the random access data base for the mail aliases file /etc/aliases. It must be run each time this file is changed in order for the change to take effect. This would be enough to receive all email directed to root, but in case you still don’t get root emails, check mta with:
# alternatives --display mta
This will show you something like
[root@s1 ~]# alternatives --display mta mta - status is manual. link currently points to /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail - priority 90 slave mta-pam: /etc/pam.d/smtp.sendmail slave mta-mailq: /usr/bin/mailq.sendmail slave mta-newaliases: /usr/bin/newaliases.sendmail slave mta-rmail: /usr/bin/rmail.sendmail slave mta-sendmail: /usr/lib/sendmail.sendmail slave mta-mailqman: /usr/share/man/man1/mailq.sendmail.1.gz slave mta-newaliasesman: /usr/share/man/man1/newaliases.sendmail.1.gz slave mta-aliasesman: /usr/share/man/man5/aliases.sendmail.5.gz slave mta-sendmailman: /usr/share/man/man8/sendmail.sendmail.8.gz /usr/sbin/sendmail.postfix - priority 30 slave mta-pam: /etc/pam.d/smtp.postfix slave mta-mailq: /usr/bin/mailq.postfix slave mta-newaliases: /usr/bin/newaliases.postfix slave mta-rmail: /usr/bin/rmail.postfix slave mta-sendmail: /usr/lib/sendmail.postfix slave mta-mailqman: /usr/share/man/man1/mailq.postfix.1.gz slave mta-newaliasesman: /usr/share/man/man1/newaliases.postfix.1.gz slave mta-aliasesman: /usr/share/man/man5/aliases.postfix.5.gz slave mta-sendmailman: /usr/share/man/man1/sendmail.postfix.1.gz Current `best' version is /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail.
We use postfix so we should change this with
[root@s1 ~]# alternatives --config mta There are 2 programs which provide 'mta'. Selection Command ----------------------------------------------- *+ 1 /usr/sbin/sendmail.sendmail 2 /usr/sbin/sendmail.postfix Enter to keep the current selection[+], or type selection number:
Enter 2 and press Enter. Then check your mta with
[root@s1 ~]# alternatives --display mta mta - status is manual. link currently points to /usr/sbin/sendmail.postfix
That’s it… Now if your logwatch is configured properly you should receive root emails…
The RPMforge project is an open source project that provides RPM packages for various distributions (RH, CentOS, Fedora, …). To enable RPMforge you can install the rpmforge-release package for your distribution.
For RHEL5 / CentOS-5:
# wget http://packages.sw.be/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.1-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm # rpm -Uvh rpmforge-release-0.5.1-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm
# wget http://packages.sw.be/rpmforge-release/rpmforge-release-0.5.1-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm # rpm -Uvh rpmforge-release-0.5.1-1.el5.rf.x86_64.rpm
For older releases (RHEL 4 / CentOS 4) please follow the instructions available on RPMrepo Wiki
You can run the command below at a command prompt to see what version of Centos/Fedora/RH your server is running.
[root@hydra:~]# cat /etc/redhat-release CentOS release 5.2 (Final)
[root@s2 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release Fedora release 7 (Moonshine)
As you probably know, the latest CentOS and RHEL distros are available only with PHP 5.1.6 and if you want to upgrade PHP, you need to install it manually (or to find someone to do it for you 🙂 ). The 5.2.5 release brings several security enhancements, more than 60 bug fixes, and improved performance for those of you that like arrays (and really, who doesn’t?). I wanted to install latest RoundCube webmail application and it won’t work if you don’t have PHP> 5.2. Also, latest Vivvo won’t work without 5.2.x
So, if you don’t want to build rpms or to go through ./configure, make, make install nightmare, you can enable Jason Litka yum repository to your RHEL or CentOS system. To do this please follow next few steps.
First you need to validate that the packages came from Jason Litka and you’ll do it with next command:
#rpm --import http://www.jasonlitka.com/media/RPM-GPG-KEY-jlitka
After you added his public GPG key, you’ll need to adjust yum so he can search at his repo. To do this, please follow next steps:
#nano -w /etc/yum.repos.d/utterramblings.repo
Now copy next lines inside this file and save those changes.
[utterramblings] name=Jason's Utter Ramblings Repo baseurl=http://www.jasonlitka.com/media/EL$releasever/$basearch/ enabled=1 gpgcheck=1 gpgkey=http://www.jasonlitka.com/media/RPM-GPG-KEY-jlitka
Now you can upgrade your PHP installation with simple:
#yum update php
More information about this can be found HERE.
[root@ns1 ~]# php -v PHP 5.2.6 (cli) (built: May 5 2008 10:32:59) Copyright (c) 1997-2008 The PHP Group Zend Engine v2.2.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2008 Zend Technologies [root@ns1 ~]#
I forget to say that you should restart httpd after upgrade.